Thick black females only

Added: Kiva Yarber - Date: 17.03.2022 11:12 - Views: 15057 - Clicks: 1693

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage.

For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. The appearance and aesthetics of the hair are a frequent concern of women around the world, who increasingly try to follow the trend of straightening their hair.

The habit of straightening Afro-ethnic hair probably started during the slavery period, when black women began to use hot irons to straighten their hair. Hair-straightening techniques have been improved ever since, starting with the hot comb - created by Madame CJ Walker in the twentieth century -, and being followed by the development of chemical hair-straightening products. This review aims to describe the most common hairstyles and the main scalp dermatoses of women of African descent. Moreover, we try to describe the unique characteristics that contribute to the development of specific diseases in this important ethnic group in a miscegenated country like Brazil.

Although there are numerous studies on human hair, there are only a few publications about the influence of hair care practices and cultural habits on African hair and scalp health and conditions. These differ mainly in their appearance, geometry, mechanical properties and water content. Granular pigments eumelanin , which vary in color from black to dark red, give darker colors to the hair, while diffuse pigments pheomelanin , which vary in color from bright red to pale yellow, give lighter colors to the hair.

Afro-ethnic hair characteristically contains more eumelanin than pheomelanin and is therefore darker. The hair follicles are asymmetrical, with elliptical or oval cross section and curve hair follicle bulb. This elliptical shape with flattened and irregular hair shafts is responsible for lower resistance and a higher susceptibilityto breakage when compared with Caucasian and Asian hair, which have a straight hair follicle, free of irregularities, and round-shaped hair shafts with homogeneous diameter throughout the fiber.

Because of this peculiar anatomical aspect, scalp biopsies should be carried out with care, respecting the inclined axis of implantation of the hair shaft. Thus, the biopsy must be performed parallel to the axis of growth of the hair, which in the case of people of African descent, has a 45 degrees tilt angle. Therefore, the vertical section of the test must be obtained by inserting the punch of at least 4 mm in size at 45 degrees in relation to the skin, reaching subcutaneous tissue.

The ideal fragment is taken from the place where there is a positive traction test, representing active disease. The water absorption capacity and the bonds between the water molecules and the protein molecules of the shaft interfere with the physical properties and the architecture of the hair. Both of them are reduced in the Afro-ethnic hair and, for that reason, the hair strands form knots and longitudinal cracks that contribute even more to the relative fragility of this hair type. Black women have shorter hair when compared with other types of hair, even after a prolonged period without cutting.

This is explained by the fact that Afro-ethnic hair grows more slowly than Caucasian hair 0. Neil Persingh compared African, Asian and Caucasian hairs removed while combing and concluded that African hairs have a higher of knots, partial breakages, trichoptilosis longitudinal division of the distal shaft and breakages.

However, the fibers have a similar chemical composition in terms of proteins and amino acids. Sebum secretion is normal, reduced or increased in the scalp of individuals of African descent. Nevertheless, the curled configuration of the shaft impairs the normal distribution of natural oils along the hair shaft, from root to tip, providing a dull and dry look. In straight Asian and Caucasian hair, the straight and regular surface allows a better reflection of light and a homogeneous distribution of sebum over the hair strands, making them look brighter and more moisturized.

Although African hair is drier more brittle and susceptible to chemical and physical damage due to its spiral structure, it also has some advantages, especially in hot climates where it forms a natural barrier against the sun. Its spiral curved form causes the air to cool up and easily circulate through the scalp, being part of the body's thermoregulatory mechanism. Another fact which constitutes a thermoregulatory advantage is that fluids like water and sebum do not distribute themselves completely evenly along the hair strands, reducing the water loss capacity and further contributing to the regulation of body temperature.

When investigating hair loss, the following questions should be asked 11 :. If the clinical examination reveals fracture of the hair shaft it is imperative that the physician ask the patient whether she has used chemical relaxers such as sodium hydroxide, guanidinium hydroxide, and ammonium thioglycolate which can be used for both permanent hair waving and for hair straightening or chemical hair straighteners with formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers, such as glyoxylic acid and methyleneglycol.

Completely broken hair shafts are a very common result of the use of different types of mutually incompatible chemical straighteners. Thioglycolate, for instance, is incompatible with hydroxides. The use of both substances on the same site causes immediate hair loss due to complete breakage of the hair shaft. Other causes of hair shaft breakage are the frequent use of hair-straightening and hair-waving irons, or the habit of combing the hair using a hair comb made of plastic or other good electricity-conducting material. Clinical examination should include a direct questioning about the use of hairpieces or braids, which constitute important behavioral and cultural factors involved in some cases of alopecia.

It is important to evaluate the situation of the hair shaft and the hair follicle by means of a traction test and of dermoscopy. The pattern of hair loss and the scalp should also be evaluated in order to determine whether there is hair breakage or the presence of hairstyles or hairpieces that apply traction to the follicles. In this entity, the hair is so fragile that a minor trauma to its proximal end causes its breakage.

In areas damaged by the act of combing the hair or applying pressure to it hairstyles or positioning of the side of the head on the pillow during sleep this usually gives the appearance that the hair was cut very close to the scalp. The disease affects patients of all ages and both sexes, and may be associated with a family history of "hair that does not grow. The onset of APTN may occur after years of use of chemicals or heat devices for straightening the hair.

The continuous and uninterrupted use of chemical straighteners such as sodium hydroxide and guanidine hydroxide weakens the hair shaft by causing the loss of protein material, serious damage to the cuticle and, subsequently, to the cortex. A change in the choice of chemical straightener may result in the simultaneous use of mutually incompatible chemicals and lead to the total breakage of the hair shaft.

In some cases, this can result from the excessive combing or brushing of the hair with a very stiff brush and plastic combs. In other cases, it is not possible to correlate the chemical, thermal or mechanical trauma with the development of the disease. It is then believed that these factors act as adjuvants and are influenced by genetic factors inherent to each patient. Callender VD et al. APTN begins with thinning hair on the vertex accompanied by little or no clinical evidence of scarring.

During the evolutionary process of normal hair, the cells of the internal follicular sheath become keratinized earlier than the cortex and act as a cylindrical axis that supports the hair growth, which will be guided and shaped by this structure.

However, it is believed that the absence of internal follicular sheath causes a disorganized 'packaging' of the hair, especially of the cuticle, resulting in instability and ultimately in breakage. The diagnosis can be made by means of the tug test, which consists in selecting a sample of hair strands and holding it at its base with the forefinger and thumb of one hand while the other hand pulls the strands towards their distal end. With this maneuver, it is possible to observe the breakage of the hair in half.

Another characteristic feature of the disease is trichonodosis, i. Recommendations for these patients are: 11 , Use a soft brush with widely spaced bristles and coated tips or a wooden comb with wide teeth. Even after the complete interruption of all hair straightening and relaxing tecnhiques, it is expected that the disease will remain active for further years, possibly because all hairs have to be replaced by new anagens ones.

Alternatively, some women choose to keep their hair short in order to achieve that the fractured hairs and the hairs that were not affected by the disease have the same length. We emphasize the importance of making the differential diagnosis between acquired proximal trichorrhexis nodosa and early-onset CCCA, because both conditions have the same topography and do not present obvious s of a scarring area, especially in women of African descent. In the case CCCA, the simple recommendation to interrupt all hair treatments will be ineffective.

Here is also necessary the introduction of treatment in order to cease the progression of the disease, reduce the chances of developing scarring alopecia and increase the probability of hair regrowth in the future. This syndrome is characterized by the inability of the hair to grow long and the observation of an increased of telogen hairs in the trichogram.

Usually affected are Caucasian children with blond thin hair who are brought to the doctor by their parents because their hair does not grow long or because they have never had a haircut. However, Nidhi Avashia et al. The patient also reported that her first haircut had occurred when she was seven years old and that her hair had never grown more than 7.

The diagnosis is made by means of the observation of the presence of normal hair, with a short anagen phase and there may be an anagen to telogen ratio of up to It is important to keep in mind that this is a possible diagnosis in black children with limited growth of hair. Ignorance of this entity may lead to a diagnosis of traction alopecia in children who wear braids and do not present normal hair growth. Short anagens were also described in the tricho-dental syndrome, a congenital disorder associated with hypodontia.

Therapeutic options are limited. Traction alopecia TA is an extremely common condition in black women, resulting from years of use of hairpieces and hairstyles that exert prolonged and repeated traction upon the hairs and cause the shortening of the hairs in the frontotemporal line of implantation of the hair. Usually, the areas of alopecia are symmetrical along the frontotemporal line Figure 1. Traction alopecia.

Observe the traction exerted by the hairpiece upon the hairs, resulting in the shortening of the hairs in the temporal region. The presence of short hairs scattered along the frontotemporal line is a characteristic finding of TA and is called "fringe " Figure 2. The fringe : short tonsured hairs outlining the original frontotemporal line of implantation of the hair. In patients who have no clinical history of use of tight hairstyles, the differential diagnosis is broad and includes androgenetic alopecia, telogen effluvium, trichotillomania, primary lymphocytic scarring alopecias lichen planus pilaris, central centrifugal scarring alopecia, Brocq's pseudopelade and frontal fibrosing alopecia , and alopecia areata.

Less often, TA may affect the occipital region. In this case, the differential diagnosis with ophiasis alopecia areata is imperative. Alopecia areata AA is a type of non-scarring alopecia of autoimmune etiology. Dermoscopic findings of AA are the unique exclamation mark hairs or pencil hairs.

Histopathologic examination shows lymphocytic infiltrates around the follicular bulge. Ophiasis AA may be underdiagnosed in black women, since there is a tendency to diagnose the condition in this population as TA. Therefore, it is important to investigate the history of use or traumatic removal of hairpieces, which speaks for the diagnosis of traction alopecia. Studies with African women have shown as risk factors for the development of TA: Hairstyles should be done at least two weeks after the chemical treatment and hair relaxers should be avoided, especially in children.

If a chemical hair relaxer is used, it should only be applied to the virgin hair, and one should be careful not to apply it to ly relaxed hair. The use of hair dryers and flat irons should be avoided. In the early stages, TA presents trichomalacia and an increased of telogen and catagen hairs.

In the course of the disease, a phenomenon similar to a "follicular abandonment" occurs: the terminal hairs disappear from the follicles, but the vellus hairs remain intact. In advanced disease settings, there may be a decrease of sebaceous glands, a mild inflammatory infiltrate and a decrease in the of terminal follicles, which are replaced by fibrotic tissue.

Dermoscopy shows many miniaturized hairs and pinpoint white dots visible acrosyringium. Due to the traction, the hairs may also show s of breakage of the follicular shaft, and sometimes display cylinders of the follicular sheath - which was freshly detached due to the trauma hair casts -, as well as cadaveric hairs and longitudinal slits at the distal end of the hair shaft Figure 3.

Observe the hair casts in traction alopecia, representing follicular sheath cylinders which detach themselves due to the traction forces exerted upon the hairs and adhere themselves to the hairs. The prognosis is variable. If the diagnosis is made early and the use of hairstyles and hair techniques that exert traction upon the hairs is stopped early in childhood , the clinical status may be reversible, usually with full recovery and growth of new hair. However, in the case of a late diagnosis, the chronic perifollicular inflammation may lead to the formation of fibrotic scarring tissue and the alopecia may become permanent.

Thus, treatment will depend on the stage of the disease.

Thick black females only

email: [email protected] - phone:(536) 191-3443 x 8910

Your Etsy Privacy Settings