Added: Kedra Lamm - Date: 15.05.2022 16:12 - Views: 10333 - Clicks: 2606
Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday.
Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions. A total of In , men, those aged 20—49 years, those in low-intensity jobs, students, and those with a high socioeconomic level were more likely to be in the highest sitting time category. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The funders had no role in study de, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes T2D , respiratory diseases, and cancer are the four major public health problems worldwide [ 1 ]. Among the main modifiable risk factors associated with this burden, three of the most recognized are 1 the lack of physical activity; 2 unhealthy diets; and 3 sedentary behaviors such as time spent in front of a screen, inactive transportation, sitting-based activities, and domestic entertainment technology [ 2 ].
Recent studies have reported that the benefits of being physically active may be compromised as more hours are spent on sedentary activities [ 4 ]. Furthermore, prolonged sedentary behavior is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity [ 4 — 7 ], which, in turn, are associated with increases in T2D and cardiovascular diseases [ 8 ].
In the last decade, the importance of measuring sedentary behaviors on population-based surveys has increased. In an international study of the prevalence of sitting time, Portugal, Brazil, and Colombia had a relatively low amount of sitting time, in contrast to Taiwan, Norway, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, and Japan, which reported some of the longest average sitting time [ 13 ].
To date, there has been no report describing sitting time prevalence in Mexico based on data from a representative sample. Given the high prevalence and alarming increase in obesity, diabetes, and other NCDs observed in Mexico, sedentary behavior patterns and their contribution to potential risk factors need to be understood, particularly in Mexico City, the largest city in Latin America, where urbanization and sedentary lifestyles coexist with poor quality diets [ 14 ].
Thus, our study aimed to describe the current prevalence and recent trends in sitting time and to examine the association between sitting time and sociodemographic characteristics and clinical indicators in adults aged 20—69 years in Mexico City. This study was deed to estimate the sitting time prevalence and trends using data from two representative surveys, conducted in and In a second stage, the last survey was used to estimate the association of average daily sitting time with sociodemographic characteristics and clinical indicators in adults aged 20—69 years in Mexico City.
These surveys have a probabilistic multistage stratified cluster sampling de and share the same basic methodology for the collected variables [ 15 , 16 ]. Additional details of the methodology used to obtain these survey data have been published elsewhere [ 15 , 16 ]. The time spent sitting per day reported either on a weekday or on a Wednesday was divided into deciles.
For both surveys, a socioeconomic status SES index was constructed by combining eight variables that assessed household characteristics, goods, and available services, including construction materials of the floor, ceiling, and walls; household goods stove, microwave, washing machine, refrigerator, and boiler ; and electrical goods television, computer, radio, and telephone. The index was divided into tertiles and used as a proxy for low, medium, and high SES [ 19 ]. Education level was categorized into three groups according to the highest level of education obtained: primary or less, secondary, and high school or higher.
On both surveys, weight and height were measured to the nearest 0. This questionnaire included foods from 14 different food groups and was the same instrument used on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake data were converted to average grams or milliliters per person per day. A nutritional composition database compiled by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health was used to estimate the total energy intake per day [ 22 ]. Trained personnel collected blood samples from the antecubital vein. Blood samples were centrifuged at the site of collection.
Glycosylated hemoglobin was processed in Bio-Rad Variant II turbo by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. Waist circumference was measured twice by trained personnel to the nearest 0. The average waist circumference was used for further analysis. In total, 26 cases were excluded from this variable because respondents did not specify their current working status, and two respondents reported a physical disability. Participants were asked to describe their main job.
Types of jobs were categorized according to the census occupational classification system [ 23 ]. A MET value was ased to each category based on the compendium of occupational activities [ 24 ]. Household activities were also classified, taking this system into , using the average value of the different household tasks light, moderate, and vigorous as a proxy [ 25 ]. The resulting continuous MET values were stratified into tertiles 1. All participants provided informed consent prior to participating No.
This procedure generated a 0. Thus, the means and prevalence values for both surveys are presented as non-standardized values. These models were tested for multicollinearity. We tested interactions between 1 age and perceived physical activity at work interaction not ificant and 2 body mass index and perceived physical activity at work in terms of their association with sitting time, using a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders.
Calculations were adjusted by sample weights and by cluster and strata variables. The sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics of adults aged 20—69 years in Mexico City in and are described in Table 1. In total, 8. Table 2 shows the mean and median sitting time and trends for adults living in Mexico City by diverse sociodemographic factors. Overall, sitting time increased The prevalence of sitting time by sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics in is shown in Table 3. Men To explore associations with the highest sitting time category, we tested diverse multivariate logistic regression models Table 3.
Men vs. Adults who reported a perception of light physical activity at work had higher mean BMI In addition, a ificant average increase of Whereas a study of 17 European countries from to [ 26 ] documented a decline in sitting time, our study in Mexico showed a ificant increase from to using the IPAQ and representative surveys. For instance, a study that estimated sitting prevalence among the German adult population reported an average sitting time of Possible explanations for these differences could be associated with income, development, and educational levels.
This is consistent with the conclusion reached from other studies: Individuals living in developing countries may sit less and have higher energy demands from their occupations, compared with those in developed countries [ 13 , 29 ]. Based on the data, we observed that men, compared with women, spent more minutes sitting per day and were approximately twice as likely to be in the highest category of sitting per day [ 13 , 28 ].
A study conducted in 32 countries showed that women spent less minutes sitting per day and were less likely to be in the highest sitting deciles, compared with men [ 28 ]. Although their finding was not ificant, Bauman et al.
In line with this, Brown et al. Future studies should more deeply explore the benefits of light physical activities mostly activities performed at home on health, not only for the potential contribution to reducing sitting time, but also to inform public health recommendations. This is consistent with age differences reported ly [ 13 , 27 , 28 ]. Overweight and obese participants were more likely to report the highest level of sitting time in Mexico City, even after adjusting for waist circumference, and this result is similar to the findings of studies [ 2 , 33 — 35 ].
However, a study performed using a representative sample in Germany with the main objective of determining the sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sitting reported contradictory findings [ 27 ]. Among the reasons the authors reported were the limited evidence on the association between overall sitting and weight gain and the use of a self-reported BMI, which could have resulted in misclassification.
Our are in line with those reported in studies finding that, after controlling for potential confounders, individuals reporting jobs with low-energy demands i. Some authors have suggested strategies i. However, these strategies have the disadvantage of compensating sitting time outside work, being ineffective in the long term, and being expensive [ 40 , 41 ].
Further effective desk-based interventions are needed to reduce not only sitting time at work, but also during leisure time. Considering the cause—effect limitation of this study, these may indicate that higher sitting time at work increase BMI levels. However, the relationship between sitting at work and BMI is still inconsistent with the findings of studies [ 30 , 40 , 42 , 43 ].
Total sitting time and its association with diabetes has been studied in cross-sectional [ 44 , 45 ], cohort [ 44 , 46 ], and intervention studies [ 44 ], with inconsistent [ 47 ]. The lack of consistency among the evidence could be related to the limited information on minutes of sitting stratified by newly and ly diagnosed diabetes, the use of self-report questionnaires to measure sitting time [ 26 , 45 ], the attenuating effect of adiposity on the association between sitting and biomarkers of metabolic health [ 44 , 45 ], the use of total sitting instead of domain-specific sitting in the association with diabetes [ 45 ], and differences in the effect of sitting by gender [ 45 ].
Although this study is limited by the use of a self-report instrument, sitting time minutes and prevalence were obtained in both survey years using the same items from the short-form IPAQ. In addition, although the IPAQ was deed and validated for use in population surveillance, this instrument, like other questionnaires, is subject to recall and social desirability bias [ 48 ].
studies have demonstrated that participants underestimate their sitting time, and this misclassification of sitting time could have attenuated the association between sitting and diabetes [ 26 ]. Although we used the cut points suggested by the IPAQ team, this criterion could have influenced the effect of sitting on health outcomes. Because research of sedentarism is a relatively new area, the cut-off points and the use of objective methods to evaluate sitting time are still becoming more precise and accessible.
In the near future, these developments will allow improvements in data quality. Finally, causality should not be inferred from the present study. Future studies should consider the inclusion of variables that evaluate sitting time on weekdays, weekends, and across different domains, such as work, transportation, home, and leisure, to understand the impact of these sedentary domains on health conditions. This study highlights the importance of measuring the prevalence and trend in sedentary behaviors on a national survey.
Futures studies should explore the health impact of different sitting domains i. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Introduction Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity.Adult women in Mexico city
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